Home Blood Pressure Measurement in the Morning Related to Cancer in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 10 Years-Term Results of a Longitudinal Study and Cancer

Kyuzi Kamoi*
The Center Diabetes & Endocrinology Metabolism, Joetsu General Hospital, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8502, Japan

© 2015 Kyuzi Kamoi.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Joetsu General Hospital, Joetsu, Niigata, 943-0502, Japan; Tel: +81-0258-36-3986; Fax: +81-0258-36-3986; E-mail:


Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated that blood pressure measurements at home (HBP) in the wakening- up display stronger predictive power for death, and vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than clinic blood pressure measurements (CBP). The leading cause of death was cancer. Patients with T2DM have associated with cancer, and high CBP is a risk factor for cancer. Therefore, this study investigated whether HBP or CBP is related to cancer event in patients with T2DM for 10 years. At baseline, 400 Japanese patients with T2DM were classified as hypertensive (HT) or normotensive (NT) based on HBP and CBP. Mean (± SD) duration was 95 ± 35 months. Primary and secondary endpoints were death and cancer, respectively. Differences in outcome between HT and NT were analyzed using survival curves from Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank testing. Associated risk factors were assessed using Cox proportional hazards. On basis of HBP, death and event of cancer were significantly higher in HT than in NT. The leading cause of death was cancer. On basis of CBP, there was no significant difference in the incidence of death and event of cancer between patients with HT and NT at baseline. Associated risk factor for cancer was T2DM. Home morning HT may be reflected more keenly state of cancer than clinic HT, which may be superior to clinic NT. When we meet with such patients, it is important that cancer may be one of many causes for morning HT in Japanese patients with T2DM.

Keywords: Cancer, clinic blood pressure, morning home blood pressure, risk factor, type 2 diabetes mellitus.