Pharmacogenomics of Adrenergic Receptors; from Hypertension to Heart Failure

Shinpei Nonen1, Junichi Azuma2, Yasushi Fujio1, *
1 Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaha, Japan
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacogenomics, School of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, Hoyogo, Japan

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© 2010 Nonen et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita city, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; Tel/Fax: +81-6-6879-8253; E-mail:


Cardiovascular medicine is a leading area of pharmacogenomics (PGx). A number of PGx studies have linked genetic polymorphisms to patients’ response to the drugs in the pharmacotherapy against cardiovascular diseases. Among them, PGx of adrenoceptors is one of the most important fields, because adrenergic networks play important roles in cardiovascular systems. The excess of adrenergic stimuli result in cardiovascular disorders, such as hypertension and heart failure (HF). One of the aims of PGx studies of adrenoreceptors is the personalization of β-blocker therapy. In this review, we have described biological and clinical impacts on genetic variants of adrenoreceptors, some of which have showed clear association with the reduction in heart rate and blood pressure in response to β-blockers. Beyond anti-hypertension therapy, PGx of adrenoreceptors would contribute to the individualization of pharmacotherapy against HF.

Keywords: Hypertension, heart failure, pharmacogenomics, polymorphism, β-blocker.