Determinants of Blood Pressure Control and Prevalence of Hypertension in Adults in 2017: A Population-Based Study in West Jakarta

Lucky Aziza Bawazir1, *, Wicensius P.H. Sianipar2
1 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia - Cipto Mangunkusumo National Teaching Hospital, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia
2 Tegal Alur II Community Health Center, Jakarta 11840, Indonesia

© 2018 Bawazir and Sianipar.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia - Cipto Mangunkusumo National Teaching Hospital, Jalan Sutan Syahrir 6, Menteng, 10430 Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia; Tel: +628158017000; Fax: +62213100762; E-mail:



The high prevalence of hypertension in developing countries underlines the need for accurate data on the prevalence of adult hypertension, as well as patient characteristics and determinants of blood pressure control. As this information is currently not available, our aim was to collect such data from a population of patients in the Tegal Alur Administrative Village, West Jakarta Indonesia.


We conducted a case-control study (n = 152) to identify determinants of hypertension and a cross-sectional study (n = 3842) to determine hypertension prevalence and investigate determinants of blood pressure control in hypertensive adults (≥18 years old).


The cross-sectional design involved the diagnosis of hypertension via home visits (active detection) and routine clinical examinations at the Tegal Alur II Community Health Center (passive detection). In the case-control design, the groups were sex-matched.


In 2017, the prevalence of hypertension in adults in Tegal Alur was 16.8% (n = 646), and the rate of uncontrolled hypertension was 89% (n = 572). A multivariate analysis showed that the adjusted prevalence ratio for comorbidities was 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48–3.12; p = 0.005). A body mass index indicative of being overweight (≥23 kg/m2) had an odds ratio of 2.25 (95% CI: 1.14–4.44; p = 0.016).


Comorbidities were the strongest predictor of uncontrolled blood pressure in hypertensive adults of Tegal Alur. Being overweight (BMI ≥23 kg/m2) was significantly associated with hypertension.

Keywords: Determinants, Blood pressure control, Prevalence of hypertension, Population-based study, West Jakarta, Indonesia.